Robert Butler explaining how to use the measured arrival times of P and S waves to determine the distance to an earthquake using standard travel-time curves.
Video lecture describing thickness, layering, and brittle nature of lithospheric plates. Continental lithosphere and oceanic lithosphere are compared.
Video lecture on using foam faults to demonstrate faults and a deck of cards to demonstrate folds and fabrics. Different types of faults are: normal (extensional) faults; thrust (compressional) faults; and strike-slip (shearing) faults.
A hard-boiled egg is used as a scale model for the zones of the Earth. The shell is to the egg as the lithosphere is to the Earth.
Actual video of an earthquake occurring on the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, California. Watch the trees shake and the birds fly when the earthquake shakes the ground!
Demonstration of brittle fracture by bending and breaking a yard stick.
Video lecture on how temperature controls mechanical behavior of materials, including rocks. A Big Hunk candy bar is used as a model. The cold candy bar is brittle while the warm candy bar is ductile or plastic.
In this video segment, Jenda Johnson shows how to use candles of varying heights to demonstrate the hazard of volcanic gases. Jenda makes CO2 gas using baking soda and vinegar then gradually fills a bowl containing candles of different heights with the gas. The candles are progressively extinguished from shortest to tallest as the level of CO2 gas in the bowl rises.
In this video, Roger Groom (Mt Tabor Middle School, Portland, OR) demonstrates the “Gelatin Volcano” model of igneous processes. The preparation of the Gelatin Volcano is demonstrated. Then Roger shows how to inject chocolate “magma” into the volcano to make an intrusive dike and eruption of a laval flow on the flank of the volcano.
The shape of the ground surface on or around a volcano sometimes precedes volcanic eruptions. Monitoring the shape of volcanoes has become an important component of volcano monitoring programs. This animation explains the principles of GPS and tiltmeter monitoring of volcanoes. The animation was developed by the Mt St Helens Institute, US Geological Survey Johnston Ridge Observatory, IRIS, and EarthScope.