Animation developed by Professor Larry Braile to illustrate how Love waves (surface waves with horizontal motion) pass through surface layers of the Earth.
Ross Stein (US Geological Survey) explains how faults rupture during earthquakes.
John Lahr (US Geological Survey Emeritus) describes the two-block “Earthquake Machine” model. Connecting two blocks together begins to model interactions between adjacent patches on a fault. The two-block model demonstrates how motion on one area of a fault can increase stress on an adjacent area, bringing it closer to failure in an earthquake.
John Lahr (US Geological Survey Emeritus) describes the single-block Earthquake Machine model. This simple physical model demonstrates the “earthquake cycle”, the slow accumulation of elastic energy in rocks adjacent to a fault followed by rapid release of elastic energy during an earthquake.
A teacher’s guide to using foam models to demonstrate principles of different kinds of faults. This guide is a minor modification of the original teacher’s guide developed by Professor Larry Braile of Purdue University. Three-dimensional visualization is sometimes challenging for students. Use of three-dimensional foam models to represent blocks of Earth’s crust can allow students to visualize how crustal blocks across different types of faults. It is important to emphasize that blocks of crust often move in “jerks” rather than sliding smoothly and steadily. Earthquakes are the result of sudden motion of blocks of crust along a fault. Students sometimes find the expression “earthquakes are jerks” memorable and a key to understanding the connection between faults and earthquakes.
Virtual Field Environment of field locations explored during TOTLE summer workshops. Effective use of this teaching resource requires DSL internet connection or faster internet connection. Your browser needs to have Adobe Flash Player installed.
Roger Groom (Science teacher at Mt Tabor Middle School in Portland, OR) explains Parts 3, 4, and 5 of the Cascadia GPS Gumdrop Lesson Plan. Part 3 deals with how time-series graphs show the motion of a GPS receiving station. Part 4 shows how to help students determine the direction and rate of movement of a GPS receiver from the time-series graphs. Part 5 demonstrates how students can compare the motions of GPS receivers at various distances from the Pacific Northwest coast to visualize how the margin of the North American Plate is being squeezed by the northeasterly motion of the Juan de Fuca Plate.
This file is a zipped collection of PowerPoint Presentation along with associated QuickTime animations. The PowerPoint is 36 slides on the Japan magnitude 9.0 earthquake and resulting tsunami with comparisons to Cascadia past and future great earthquakes and tsunamis. You are welcome to download the zipped archive and use any or all elements for your own educational purposes. Please acknowledge Teachers on the Leading Edge as the source.
NOTE: If you download the PowerPoint and QuickTime files to a PC, you will likely need to reinsert the animations into the PowerPoint slides OR perhaps run the QuickTime animations in a MediaPlayer window rather than within PowerPoint.
This PDF provides a brief (12 page) introduction to regional plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes of the Pacific Northwest. The focus is mainly on the subduction zone (coast to Cascade Mountains) because that is where most of the earthquakes and volcanoes occur, and where tsunamis can be generated. This information was gathered and repurposed by Jenda Johnson and Bob Butler from the Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (www.pnsn.org/), the U.S. Geological Survey (www.usgs.gov), and from two books: Orphan Tsunami of 1700, by Brian Awtater and others, and At Risk: Earthquakes and Tsunamis on the West Coast by John Clague and others.
This PowerPoint presentation covers basics of Cascadia earthquakes and tsunamis. Before veiwing this PowerPoint presentation, viewers are encouraged to view the PowerPoint presentations under the Introduction to Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes topic.
You are invited to download and modify this PowerPoint presentation for your own classroom teaching.