Learning and teaching resources on Cascadia volcanoes and their associated hazards are provided in this section. We explain the origins of and chemistries of magma and how these are related to plate tectonics in general and Cascadia regional plate tectonics in particular. The types of volcanoes and the explosiveness of their eruptions are addressed by examining the “three Vs of volcanology”, viscosity, volatiles, and volume. Major volcanic provinces and the importance of volcanic rocks in the geologic history of the Pacific Northwest are outlined. Cascadia volcanic hazards include ash flows, ash fall, and volcanic mud and debris flows. We provide a short introduction to methods of monitoring volcanic activity and warning signs of impending eruption.
We recommend that you start by viewing the Cascadia Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards PowerPoint Presentation. This presentation provides the basic concepts and observations as well as links the teaching resources appropriate for a middle school audience.
A PDF Guide to Cascadia Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards is also available. This guide is an outline of the Cascadia Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards topic that contains links to and a table of contents of TOTLE teaching resources on this topic.
In this video, Roger Groom (Mt Tabor Middle School, Portland, OR) demonstrates the “Gelatin Volcano” model of igneous processes. The preparation of the Gelatin Volcano is demonstrated. Then Roger shows how to inject chocolate “magma” into the volcano to make an intrusive dike and eruption of a laval flow on the flank of the volcano.
In this video segment, Jenda Johnson shows how to use candles of varying heights to demonstrate the hazard of volcanic gases. Jenda makes CO2 gas using baking soda and vinegar then gradually fills a bowl containing candles of different heights with the gas. The candles are progressively extinguished from shortest to tallest as the level of CO2 gas in the bowl rises.